Vitamins, Minerals, and Fibers

Vitamins – Vital Ingredients of The Food

Vitamins are vital ingredients of the food. They do not provide energy but are indispensable for many metabolic processes.

Vitamins: Detailed

Vitamins are organic substances that the organism needs for certain vital functions, but can not, or only in insufficient quantities, produce itself. Vitamins are thus essential, i. they must be ingested regularly with food. The daily requirement for these micronutrients is low compared to the required amounts of energy supplying nutrients.

Provitamins are vitamin precursors, which are only converted into the active vitamin in the body.

Requirements and quantity recommendation:

The need for vitamins depends on the individual, his physical and psychological condition (eg illnesses, stress). The information for adequate vitamin intake should take into account: age, gender, level of performance, health status, dietary composition, etc.

The indicated desirable daily intake levels contain a safety margin that exceeds the requirement. The indicated quantities do not have to be recorded daily. On average, however, the supply should correspond to these quantities.

As critical vitamins, i. Vitamins, which are often below the recommended intake, are the vitamins B1, B2, B6, and folic acid in Germany. To detect possible deficiencies in the supply of vitamins, nutrient recommendations are issued, which apply to about 97% of the population.

As you can see in the sometimes very different intake recommendations for vitamins and minerals, there is still no certainty about what quantities the human body needs exactly. The individual needs may vary. For some vitamins, different values ​​apply for women and men, as well as for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Age also influences the nutritional requirements as well as diseases or special burdens.

vitamins-are-vital-ingredients-of-the-food

There are two groups of vitamins:

  • Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are included in the group of fat-soluble vitamins. The absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is done together with dietary fats. Excessive vitamins of this group are stored in the body. Man can get by these supplies after a regular and sufficient supply for some time with less intake quantities. The body can only excrete small amounts of these vitamins via the intestine. As a result, overdose is possible. Beware of self-medication!

  • Water-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin C and the Vitamin B Complex (Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin (PP), Pantothenic Acid (Coenzyme A), Folic Acid (M), Biotin (H), Rutin (P), Ortoic Acid (B13), Pangametine (B15)) are water-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins can only be stored in small quantities. The body’s storage capacity for these vitamins varies greatly: Vitamin B1: 1-2 weeks, B2, B6, C, and niacin: 2-6 weeks, folic acid: 3-4 months, B12: 3-5 years. [Lit-1] Therefore, they must be supplied to the body regularly in sufficient quantity. Surpluses are excreted via the kidneys (urine). Overdoses are still possible.

Minerals / Quantity Elements 

Minerals are components of inorganic food that cannot be produced by the body itself. Minerals are essential (vital) components of all living cells and are involved in the metabolism.

Minerals: Detailed

The proportion of minerals in the human body is about 4% of body weight.

Minerals are differentiated according to the amount in which they occur in the body. Volume elements are minerals that are contained in the human body at more than 50 mg per kg of body weight. Trace elements are minerals that make up less than 50 mg per kg of body weight. The quantity elements are often referred to as minerals (as on this page) also in contrast to the trace elements.

Humans need minerals for many functions, eg. As for the build-up of body substances (bones, muscles) and the maintenance of enzyme activities.

Purpose of minerals in the body:

  • Minerals are part of the skeleton and teeth. They give the bones the strength.
  • Minerals affect in dissolved form, as electrolytes, vital properties of body fluids, eg. B. Maintenance of osmotic pressure.
  • Minerals are essential components of organic compounds in the body. Iodine is part of the thyroid hormone, cobalt of vitamin B12, the iron of hemoglobin, etc.

Minerals in food:

How high the mineral content of various foods depends not least on how many minerals contained the soil on which the plant grew or what the animal got to eat. It should also be noted that some nutrients may have a beneficial or inhibiting effect on mineral intake.

Fiber-How-much-and-for-what

Fiber: How much and for what?

What is dietary fiber?

The term “dietary fiber” comes from a time when these food ingredients have been considered as “superfluous ballast”.

The fiber is mostly carbohydrates. It used to be thought that dietary fiber was not usable by the human body because human digestive juices contain no enzymes that can break down these compounds. It has been overlooked that some of the dietary fiber is fermented by enzymes of the microorganisms of the large intestine. In addition to gases, short-chain fatty acids, which can be utilized by humans, are also produced. The energy gain from dietary fiber (2-3 kcal / g) is negligible due to the low amounts added. The intake recommendation of the DGE of 30 g fiber per day is often not reached.

The fibers include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, agar-agar, lignin, etc.

One distinguishes between insoluble and soluble fiber.

The insoluble fiber can increase its volume thanks to its high swelling capacity. That is, they bind fluid, thereby increasing the volume of the intestinal contents, which in turn accelerates the natural intestinal movement and reduces the residence time of the chyme in the intestine. Ingested in sufficient quantities, they can prevent widespread constipation.

The soluble fiber binds bile acids (which consist of 80 percent cholesterol) and other metabolic products and ensures their elimination. In this way less cholesterol gets into the blood and the cholesterol level drops.

All fiber, except lignin, can bind water. In the so-called swelling substances, the water-binding can be up to 100 times its own weight.

Effect of dietary fiber:

Positive effect of fiber

    • lasting satiety
    • Binding and removal of cholesterol and bile acid, thereby lowering cholesterol levels.
    • Increase in colonic mobility (mobility)
    • Water retention in the colon, which contributes to a supple chair.
    • Prevention of a number of chronic bowel diseases.
    • possibly reducing the colorectal cancer risk

Negative effect of dietary fiber

    • Flatulence due to gas formation of microorganisms
    • additional contamination with xenobiotics
    • direct epithelial damage (intestinal mucosal tissue)
    • Binding of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, which reduces their absorption rate.
    • Intestinal entanglement due to excessive colon filling.

Fiber in food:

Dietary fiber is found only in vegetable products, especially whole grains, legumes, vegetables, salads, sprouts and fruit.

Fiber in 100g food:

    • Oatmeal: 10 g
    • Wheat Germ: 17.7 g
    • Wheat bran: 45.4 g
    • Rice: 4.5 g
    • Crispbread: 14 g
    • Peas: 16.6 g
    • Corn: 9.7 g
    • Lentils: 17 g
    • Soybeans: 21.9 g
    • Beans, white: 23.2 g
    • Kale: 4.2 g
    • Cauliflower: 26.3 g
    • Carrots: 12.1 g
    • Prunes, dried: 5.0 g
    • Whole wheat pasta: 8.0 g

Useful Properties of Papaya Fruits

Many of us have papaya, useful properties, but not everybody knows it. Today we will talk more about overseas guests who are happy for each table.

Papaya – this is not the tallest tree, reaches a height of about 5-10 meters, thin trunk, deprived of twigs, the leaves are large, about 50 centimeters in diameter, are only in the top of the plant. The bark of the tree, made of thick-walled fibers strong, very strong, so that a rope consists of it. Papaya fruits oval, 30 cm long, in shape and taste very similar to the melon, it is called melon tree. Ripe papaya fruit is soft golden yellow color. The life of the tree is about 20 years, it begins to bear fruit in the first year and to the end of its life. Papaya is one of the most important fruit plants in the tropics. The fruits are used in their diet more than one million people.

The main application of papaya – is the use of its fruit as food. It’s eaten raw, and that stewed. Also papaya fruits baked in the fire. However, they give off a smell of bread, as well as papaya and bread tree. Papaya fruits contain vitamins C, B1, B2, B5, and D; Minerals: potassium, calcium, chlorine, zinc, magnesium, iron; Carbohydrates: fructose and glucose. Of particular value is the fruit of the plant enzyme – papain. Papain promotes lipolysis and strength and also cleaves proteins in the human stomach. Therefore, the papaya is mainly used as a food product that helps digestion.

In folk medicine uses papaya juice, it contains an enzyme, regeneration of the connective tissue of the intervertebral discs, so that it is used in osteochondrosis. Also papaya juice is used as a remedy for worms. The milky juice from unripe fruits, while drying, the drugs received papain. Its use in the treatment of various diseases of the stomach. But it should be noted that the milky sap of the unripe fruit is highly toxic, is white, and when ripe it becomes watery and loses its toxic properties. The juice of papaya are used in the kitchen when cooking meat, as it is able to soften the meat is very stiff. And if the old beef wrapped in papaya leaves for a few hours, then it will be soft and easy. Also for softening meat while preparing hotter is added papaya pieces.

Papaya fruit eats vitamins A, B, D because of its high content, normalizes the liver, stomach acid and normalizes blood sugar. Papaya promotes a rapid recovery of the body after the transmitted diseases. Especially recommended to include in your diet papaya elder. Made from papaya tablets for the treatment of herpes. It is believed that regular use of the papaya helps to protect the body from cancer. Papain obtained from the milk juice is used in the treatment of thrombosis. Externally, it is used for the rapid healing of burns, wounds, bedsores. It helps cleanse the wound of the necrotic masses. Creams containing papain are used in dentistry. It is used for the treatment of tooth decay and other diseases of the oral cavity. In addition to the medical uses papaya and cosmetics.

Widespread use has been obtained from the seeds of the fruit papaya oil. The oil contains large amounts of vitamin A and C, and rich in potassium. It is used for muscle building and skin hydration, whereby the oil penetrates easily into the skin. Most oil papaya is used for oily and problematic skin as it helps in reducing sebum production. Oil acts as an antibiotic, so it can be applied to injured skin. More oil is used in hair care because it gives shine on hair care properties. In addition to the papaya enzyme in the papaya enzyme papain used oil. Apply ointments and creams containing papain, freckles, age spots to remove. Papain weakens ingrown hair and prevents the growth of new hair as it promotes the destruction of keratin. Therefore, papain will be used to remove unwanted body hair. Use papaya juice carefully because it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. As folk medicine in India, women used immature papaya as a contraceptive.

The food industry also uses papaya, more papain. It is used for the clarification of wine, as well as to give the young wine tasting aged old wine to add to the taste of the cheese, for juices, sweets etc.

When buying fruit, be advised that the peel of the papaya fruit is green with a yellow tint. The fruit should be soft, regular in shape, with no pungent odor. Ripe fruits stored in the refrigerator for about a week at room temperature not more than two days. Papaya fruits are not suitable for freezing. Here is one he, papaya fruits, useful properties that are so important to each one of us.